Special Education Terms

 A Parent’s Guide to Special Education Terms

Accommodations
Changes that allow a person with a disability to participate fully in an activity. Examples include, extended time, different test format, and alterations to a classroom.  For further reading, access the Oklahoma Accommodations Manual  under the Technical Assistance Documents section at http://ok.gov/sde/documents-forms.

Achieving Classroom Excellence (ACE)
The Achieving Classroom Excellence Act (ACE) is a statewide effort to raise expectations for student achievement in Oklahoma public schools. It provides a framework for all Oklahoma school systems to implement standards, curriculum, and assessments with the rigor and relevance necessary for Oklahoma students to be prepared for college and the world of work.

ACE sets forth requirements that must be met in order for a student to earn a diploma from an Oklahoma public high school.  An Oklahoma high school diploma tells admission officers at college, universities, and career and technology schools that the bearer is ready for the rigors of post-secondary education. It also tells potential employers that the graduate possesses the reading, writing, and mathematical skills required for success in the workplace, OSDE Form 13: ACE Alternate Determination for Students Assessed through the OAAP.

Advocate
An individual who is not an attorney, but who assists parents and children in their dealings with school districts regarding the children’s special education programs.

Age of Majority/Transfer of Rights
By age 17, young adult and parent(s) should be informed of any transfer of rights at the age of majority.  In Oklahoma, the age of majority is 18.

Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)
ADD is a condition causing a persistent pattern of difficulties resulting in one or more of the following behaviors: inattention, hyperactivity or impulsivity.  Signs include apparent listening problems, difficulty following directions, problems organizing activities and tasks, lack of sustained attention, avoidance of tasks that require mental effort, tendency to lose things, and forgetfulness in daily activities.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
ADHD is a condition with hyperactive-impulsive behaviors such as excessive running, climbing, fidgeting, squirming, difficulty playing quietly, blurting out answers before hearing the entire question, difficulty remaining in a seat/chair, interrupting others, inattention to details, and the difficulty waiting for their turn or in a line.

American with Disabilities Act (ADA) 1990
A federal act that establishes a clear and comprehensive prohibition of discrimination on the basis of disability (Public Law 101-336).

Anxiety in Children
Extreme agitation, filled with tension and dread.  It is different than fear.  Children with anxiety may or may not qualify for special education. Those who need modifications to their school day can achieve this through a 504 plan.

Aphasia
Aphasia is condition characterized by either partial or total loss of the ability to communicate verbally or using written words. A person with aphasia may have difficulty speaking, reading, writing, recognizing the names of objects, or understanding what other people have said.

Assessment or Evaluation
Term used to describe the testing and diagnostic processes leading up to the development of an appropriate IEP for a student with special education needs.

Asperger’s Syndrome
A type of pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) that involves delays in the development of basic skills, including socializing, coordination and the ability to communicate.

Assistive Technology (AT)
Devices or equipment used to increase, maintain or improve the functional capabilities of a child.   The OSDE provides a manual, Technical Assistance Guide Assistive Technology for Children and Youth with Disabilities IDEA Part B, to assist Oklahomans.

Autism
A brain development disorder characterized by impaired social interaction, communication and by restricted and repetitive behavior. Signs usually begin before a child is 3 years old.

Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP)
Special education term used to describe the written plan used to address problem behavior that includes positive behavioral interventions, strategies and support. BIP’s may include program modifications and supplementary aids and services. Generally, a BIP follows a Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA).

Bipolar Disorders
Bipolar disorders are characterized by cycles of mania alternating with depression. It is difficult to diagnose children with this disorder and often controversial.

Blindness
Condition defined by lacking visual perception due to physiological or neurological factors.

Cerebral Palsy (CP)
A series of motor problems and physical disorders related to brain injury. CP causes uncontrollable reflex movements and muscle tightness and may cause problems in balance and depth perception. Severe cases can result in intellectual disabilities, seizures or vision and hearing problems.

Child Find
A federal mandate that local educational agencies initiate programs to identify children in need of special education services.

Comment Form
This form is utilized to add necessary documentation or information concerning the child. IEP members use the attachment with other OSDE Forms (i.e., Individualized Education Plan [IEP], IEP Review, Multidisciplinary Evaluation and Eligibility Group Summary [MEEGS]) to supply comments, express disagreements or concerns, add interventions and/or additional information that may benefit a child or add a group/team member’s input that cannot be present at the meeting.

Criteria Checklist
The IEP team selects the appropriate assessments the student will participate in by reviewing Form 7, specifically the IEP Assessments page.  An explanation of why the student cannot participate in the regular assessment is then required and the IEP team must include OSDE Form 12: Criteria Checklist for Assessing Students with Disabilities on Alternate Assessments. Participation in OAAP must be determined utilizing the Criteria Checklist.

Cumulative File
A compilation of records maintained by the local school district for any child enrolled in school. The file may contain evaluations and information about a child’s disability and placement. It also contains grades and the results of standardized assessments. Parents have the right to inspect these files at any time.

Deaf-Blindness (DB)
A combination of concurrent hearing and vision impairments which cause severe communication and other developmental and learning needs that cannot be appropriately met in special education programs provided solely for children with deafness or blindness.

Deafness
Hearing impairment so severe that a child is impaired in possessing any linguistic information through hearing.

Developmental Delay (DD)
A child, ages 3-6, with a developmental delay in adaptive, cognitive, social, emotional, communication, or physical.  At age 9, Oklahoma students are placed in a different category.

Disability
Physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities.

Dyscalculia
The inability to perform mathematical operations.

Dysgraphia
The inability to perform the motor movements required for handwriting.

Dyslexia
A type of learning disability that affects reading ability.  The individual may have problems remembering, recognizing or reversing written letters, numbers and words, might read backwards, and have poor handwriting.

Dyspraxia
An inability to perform coordinated movements with no apparent problem with muscles or nerves and can be applied to language and speech functions.

Due Process
Special education term used to describe the process where parents may disagree with the program recommendations of the school district. The notice must be given in writing within 30 days. IDEA provides two methods for resolving disputes, mediation or fair hearing.

Early Intervention
Programs for developmentally delayed infants and toddlers through 35 months of age; designed to help prevent problems as the child matures. See Project Child Find.

Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EHA or EAHCA)
More commonly identified as P.L. 94-142. It became effective in 1975 and has been significantly modified by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (2004). It is the forerunner to IDEA.

Emotional Disturbance (ED)
An emotional condition used to describe a diagnosable mental, behavioral or emotional disorder that lasts for a significant duration, to a marked degree and affects educational performance.

Extended School Year (ESY)
An extended school year is a component of special education services for students with unique needs who require services in excess of the regular academic year as a necessary part of FAPE as required by IDEA.

Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)
FERPA is a federal law that regulates the management of student records and disclosure of information from those records.  The Act has its own administrative enforcement mechanism.

Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE)
Special education and related services are provided at public expense, without charge to the parents.

Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA)
A problem-solving process for addressing inappropriate behavior that impedes a child’s learning or the learning of others.  It is the collection of tools, scales, observations, and interviews that are tailored to the needs of the specific student whose behavior is problematic.  The purpose of the FBA is to determine under what conditions the behavior occurs, what drives it, what reinforces it, and what time of the day and patterns can be detected.  This assessment is used to create a BIP for the student.

Hearing Impairment
Full or partial decrease in the ability to detect or understand sounds marked by a 40 decibel loss of hearing impairment which adversely affects educational performance.

Home/Hospital Instruction
Students with verified medical conditions, which prevent them from attending school, may receive services on a temporary basis in the home or hospital with a physician’s referral.  Related services can also be provided as part of home instruction placement.  This decision is made by the IEP team.  Please do not confuse this with home schooling.

Independent Educational Evaluation (IEE)
A school district is required by law to conduct assessments for students who may be eligible for special education. If the parent disagrees with the results of a school district’s evaluation conducted on their child, they have the right to request an independent educational evaluation. The district must provide parents with information about how to obtain an IEE. An independent educational evaluation means an evaluation conducted by a qualified examiner who is not employed by the school district. Public expense means the school district pays for the full cost of the evaluation and that it is provided at no cost to the parent.

Individual with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
Original legislation was written in 1975 guaranteeing students with disabilities a free and appropriate public education and the right to be educated with their non-disabled peers. Congress has reauthorized this federal law. The most recent revision occurred in 2004.  See 6 principles of IDEA.

Individualized Education Program (IEP)
Special education term outlined by IDEA to define the written document that states the disabled child’s present levels of educational performance, areas of strengths and needs, goals, objectives, related services, and transition plan for students receiving special education.

Individualized Education Program (IEP) Team
Term used to describe the committee of parents, teachers, administrators and school personnel that provides services to the student. The committee may also include medical professional and other relevant parties. The team reviews assessment results, determines goals and objectives and program placement for the child needing services, OSDE Form 7: Individualized Education Plan (IEP).

Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP)
A process of providing early intervention services for children ages 0-3 with special needs. Family based needs are identified and a written plan is developed and reviewed periodically.

Individualized Transition Plan (ITP)
This plan starts in the 9th grade or before age 16 and addresses areas of post-school activities, post-secondary education, employment, community experiences and daily living skills.

Inclusion
Term used to describe services that place students with disabilities in general education classrooms with appropriate support services. Student may receive instruction from both a general education teacher and a special education teacher.

Intellectual Disability (ID)
ID replaces the term mental retardation.  An intellectual disability is characterized by significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. This disability originates before the age of 18.

Learning Disability
Specific learning disability means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations, including conditions such as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia.

Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
The placement of a special needs student in a manner promoting the maximum possible interaction with the general school population. Placement options are offered on a continuum including regular classroom with no support services, regular classroom with support services, designated instruction services, special day classes and private special education programs.

Local Education Agency (LEA) Term used to describe a school district.

Mainstreaming
Term used to describe the integration of children with special needs into regular classrooms for part of the school day. The remainder of the day is in a special education classroom.

Major Life Activities
Functions such as caring for oneself, performing manual tasks, walking, seeing, hearing, speaking, breathing, learning or working.

Manifestation Determination/Hearing
Within 10 school days of any decision to change the placement of a child with a disability because of violation of school code, the IEP team must review all relevant information in the student’s file to determine if the conduct in question was caused by the child’s disability or if the conduct was a direct result of the school district’s failure to implement the child’s IEP.

Medical Report/Information
This form may be used to document any relevant medical findings, health problems, medication, and any other medical information relevant to determining eligibility. Most of the information on this form must be completed by a licensed medical doctor, doctor of osteopathy, or advanced registered nurse practitioner, OSDE Form 9: Medical Report.

Modifications
This refers to changes made to curriculum expectations in order to meet the needs of the student. Modifications are made when the expectations are beyond the student’s level of ability. Modifications may be minimal or very complex depending on the student performance. Modifications must be clearly acknowledged in the IEP.

Multidisciplinary Evaluation and Eligibility Group Summary (MEEGS)
The multidisciplinary evaluation must include relevant and functional information from the home and school, or other age-appropriate settings, to provide a comprehensive perspective of the student’s educational needs. Information provided by the parent, and information related to enabling the student to be involved in and progress in the general education curriculum (or for a preschool aged student, to participate in age-appropriate activities), will be compiled to assist the group in determining whether the student has a disability and requires special education services, OSDE Form 5: Multidisciplinary Evaluation and Eligibility Group Summary (MEEGS).

Multiple Disabilities An IEP term used to define a combination of disabilities that causes severe educational needs that require multiple special education programs.

No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB)
The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act, Public Law (PL) 107-110, is the nation’s latest general education law. It amends the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) and has brought sweeping changes to our educational systems.

Notification of Meeting
OSDE Form 6: Notification of Meeting is used by the LEA to take steps to ensure that parent(s) are afforded the opportunity to participate in the special education process. The parent(s) must receive sufficient notice of meetings.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
OCD is an anxiety disorder that presents itself as recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are intrusive ideas, thoughts or images while compulsions are repetitive behaviors or mental acts that the child feels they must perform.

Occupational Therapy (OT)
Treatment from an Occupational Therapist (OT) that provides consultation and support to staff to improve a student’s educational performance related to fine motor, gross motor and sensory integration development.

Office for Civil Rights (OCR)
The OCR ensures equal access to education and promotes educational excellence throughout the nation through enforcement of civil rights.  OCR serves student populations facing discrimination and the advocates and institutions promoting systemic solutions to civil rights problems.  The OCR assists by resolving complaints of discrimination.

Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP)
The Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) is dedicated to improving results for infants, toddlers, children and youth with disabilities ages birth through 21 by providing leadership and financial support to assist states and local districts.

Oklahoma Alternate Assessment Program (OAAP)
The OAAP portfolio utilizes alternate academic achievement of the standards, which differ in complexity from grade-level achievement of the standard, but is linked to Oklahoma’s academic content standards for children with the most significant cognitive disabilities. The alternate academic achievement of the standards is available in the OAAP task specification/rubrics for utilization in Individualized Education Program development and curriculum planning. Children accessing this curriculum will have Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) containing rigorous and measurable goals and objectives/short-term benchmarks. A one percent cap exists for the reporting of students who score proficient on the OAAP. The cap does not limit the number of students participating in the OAAP, only the number who may be reported as proficient for federal accountability purposes.  OSDE Form 13 is the ACE Alternate Determination for Students Assessed through OAAP.

Oklahoma Disability Law Center (ODLC)
The entity in Oklahoma whose mission is to protect, promote and expand the rights of people with disabilities. The ODLC mission reflects a belief that people with disabilities are entitled to be treated with dignity and respect; to be free from abuse, neglect, exploitation and discrimination. The ODLC mission also reflects the belief that people with disabilities are entitled to equal rights and to equally effective access to the same opportunities as are afforded to other members of society. There is a location in Oklahoma City and in Tulsa.
Oklahoma City Office
2915 Classen Blvd.
300 Cameron Building
OKC, OK 73106
(405) 525-7755 (V/TDD)
(800) 880-7755 (V/TDD)
Fax: (405) 525-7759
Tulsa Office
2828 East 51 Street, Suite 302
Tulsa, OK 74105
(918) 743-6220 (V/TDD)
(800) 226-5883 (V/TDD)
Fax: (918) 743-7157

Oklahoma State Department of Education (OSDE)
The OSDE is the entity in Oklahoma that governs all public school systems. The mission at the OSDE is to improve student success through service to schools, parents and students, leadership for education reform, and regulation/deregulation of state and federal laws to provide accountability while removing any barriers to student success.

Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)
A child who defies authority by disobeying, talking back, arguing or being hostile in a way that is excessive compared to other children and this pattern continues for more than six months may be determined to have ODD. ODD often occurs with other behavioral problems such as ADHD, learning disabilities and anxiety disorders.

Orthopedic Impairment
Term used to define impairments caused by congenital anomaly, impairments by diseases and impairments by other causes.

Other Health Impaired (OHI)
Term used to describe limited strength, vitality and alertness that results in limited ability in the educational environment. Impairment could be a result of chronic health problems such as asthma, attention deficit disorder (ADD), epilepsy, heart condition, hemophilia, leukemia, nephritis, rheumatic fever and sickle cell anemia.

Parent Consent
Special education term used by IDEA that states you have been fully informed in your native language or other mode of communication of all the information about the action for which you are giving consent and that you understand and agree in writing to that action, OSDE Form 4: Parent Consent.

Parent/Family Survey
The Oklahoma State Department of Education (OSDE), Special Education Services (SES),  in collaboration with the Oklahoma Parents Center, Inc. (OPC) annually collect information using the Parent/Family Survey regarding SoonerStart/Early Intervention and schools’ efforts to partner with parents for the provision of special education and related services. An informational brochure is given to parents at the end of the IEP meeting.  Parents are given 4 options to complete the survey.

Parents Rights in Special Education:  Notice of Procedural Safeguards
The OSDE document based on Oklahoma law, IDEA and federal laws that afford parent/s of a child who is receiving or may be eligible for special education and related services, a guideline of their rights, http://ok.gov/sde/documents-forms.

Physical Therapy (PT)
Physical therapists provide consultation and support to staff to improve a student’s educational performance related to functional gross motor development.

Reevaluation/Continuation of Eligibility
The process of reevaluation and the determination of continued eligibility of a student with a disability require evaluation data in all areas related to the suspected disability of the student. Throughout this process, it is the responsibility of the LEA to ensure that the parent(s) of a student are given the opportunity to fully participate.  The reevaluation process is required every 3 years, or more often, if needed.  A parent must sign this form and either agree or disagree with the reevaluation.  Refer to OSDE Form 5RC.

Record of Access to Educational Records
A one page sign-in form that is used for IEP members to print, sign their name, state the purpose and date for accessing records, OSDE Form 1: Record of Access to Educational Records.

Record of Parent Contact
A two page form that LEAs use to document the date, method of contact, purpose and results of parent contact.  Student information, parent name/s and contact information, and any special instructions are to be completed on OSDE Form 2: Record of Parent Contact.

Related Services
As defined in IDEA, related services are transportation and developmental, corrective and other support services that a child with disabilities requires in order to benefit from education. Examples of related services might include audiology and speech therapy, psychological services, physical and occupational therapy, recreation, counseling services, interpreters for the hearing impaired, and medical services for diagnostic and evaluation purposes.  The list is not exhaustive or exclusive.

Residential and Private Placements
Part B of IDEA does not require a school district to pay for the cost of education for your disabled child at a private school or facility if the school district made free appropriate public education available to your child and you chose to place your child in private placement.

Resource Room
A room that is separate from the regular classroom where students with disabilities can receive specialized assistance.  Local school districts use various terms such as resource room, resource lab, etc.  The resource room is provided by the language written in the IEP as to how many minutes or hours are required by day or by week.

Resource Specialists
Provide instructional planning and support and direct services to students who needs have been identified in an IEP and are assigned to general education classrooms for the majority of their school day.

Resource Specialist Program (RSP)
Term used to describe a program that provides instruction, materials and support services to students with identified disabilities who are assigned to general classroom for more than 50% of their school day.

Review of Existing Data (RED)
When a request has been made for an initial evaluation of a student, the LEA staff must conduct a Review of Existing Data. On the basis of the RED, there must be a determination of whether or not additional data will be needed in order to determine whether the student has a particular category of disability, determine the present levels of performance and educational needs of the student and whether the student needs special education and/or related services, OSDE Form 3: Review of Existing Data (RED).  Also, the RED/MEEGS Evaluation Data sheet is utilized in conjunction with either Form 3 or Form 5. This review may be conducted by the group without a meeting. However, it is advisable to complete the review with the group.

School Psychologist
Assist in the identification of intellectual, social and emotional needs of students. They provide consultation and support to families and staff regarding behavior and conditions related to learning. They plan programs to meet the special needs of children and sometimes serve as a facilitator during an IEP meeting.

Seclusion and Physical Restraint
When seclusion (isolation to a private place) or physical restraint occurs with a child with a disability, it must be documented on SDE Form 14: Seclusion and Physical Restraint Documentation.  Other pertinent information is included on the form to include the location of the seclusion, activity and behavior prior to the seclusion/physical restraint, a description of the de-escalation techniques and interventions used prior to and following the incident and a description of any injuries to the student or school employees.

Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act
Before there was IDEA, there was the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, a civil rights law that prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability. Section 504 of this Act continues to play an important role in education, especially for students with disabilities who may not qualify for special education services under IDEA.

Section 504 Plan
An individualized plan developed for a student with a disability that specifies what accommodations and/or services they will get in school so a student will derive as much benefit from their public educational program as their nondisabled peers.  This also applies to extracurricular activities and non-student situations such as employment.  Section 504 applies to all public entities receiving federal monies.

Sensory Integration
Neurologic processes involved in interpreting and using sensory input.  If there are disturbances  in integration, sounds may be perceived as louder than normal, touch may be perceived as painful, etc.

Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD)
A complex brain disorder that causes a child to misinterpret everyday sensory information like movement, sound and touch. Children with SPD may seek out intense sensory experiences or feel overwhelmed with information.

Specific Learning Disability (SLD)
Special education term used to define a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or using language spoken or written that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell or do mathematical equations.

Speech and Language Impairments
Communication disorders such as stuttering, delayed speaking, impaired articulation, language impairment or voice impairment.

Speech and Language Specialists
Assesses students for possible delayed speech and language skills and provides direct services in the area of phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics and pragmatics. They are also available regarding hearing impairments and amplification.

Social Security Disability Insurance (SSID)
Social security disability insurance benefits are provided to qualified individuals who cannot engage in substantial gainful work activity because of a disability and who have paid into the system or has a parent who has paid into the Social Security system.

Special Education (SpEd)
Instruction specifically designed to meet the unique needs of a student with a disability, including classroom instruction, instruction in physical education, home instruction, and instruction in hospitals and institutions.

State Education Agency (SEA)
The term used to describe the leading educational agency in a given state.  Each state has a unique name for their SEA.  In Oklahoma, the SEA is the Oklahoma State Department of Education.

Supplemental Security Income (SSI)
Supplemental Security Income benefits are provided to qualified individuals who cannot engage in substantial gainful work activity because of a disability and who fall below certain assets and income levels.

Supplementary Aids and Services
Supplementary aids and services means aids, services, and other supports that are provided in regular education classes, other education-related settings, and in extracurricular and nonacademic settings, to enable children with disabilities to be educated with nondisabled children to the maximum extent appropriate in accordance with §§300.114 through 300.116.

Surrogate Parent
In the case of a student who is an unaccompanied homeless youth, a surrogate parent must be assigned for the purpose of making educational decisions. Appropriate staff of emergency shelters, transitional shelters, independent living programs, and street outreach programs may be appointed as temporary surrogate parents until a surrogate can be appointed that meets all the requirements.

Surrogate Parents Verification of Training
The person conducting the surrogate parent training and the surrogate parent must complete OSDE Form 10: Surrogate Parents Verification of Training.  The training includes information regarding laws, parent rights, procedural safeguards, disabilities, special education services, and IDEA. 

State Schools
Most states operate state run residential schools for deaf and blind students. The Oklahoma the School for the Blind is located in Muskogee and the Oklahoma School for the Deaf is in Sulphur.  Control click to access flyer for each entity.

Oklahoma School for the Blind Informational Flyer

Oklahoma School for the Deaf Informational Flyer

Student Summary of Performance
This form includes a summary of academic achievement, functional performance, and recommendation for assisting the student in meeting his or her postsecondary goals.  The summary includes the most recent evaluation data, current grades, GPA, levels of functioning, and progress made toward achieving postsecondary goals related to training, education, employment and independent living skills, OSDE Form 11: Student Summary of Performance.

Technical Assistance Documents
Refer to http://ok.gov/sde/documents-forms.

Tourette’s Syndrome
Disorder that includes multiple motor and one or more vocal tics, which occur many times per day, nearly daily. If a child has Tourette’s syndrome, symptoms tend to appear between the ages of 3-10 years old.

Transition Planning Conference (TPC)
TPC’s provide an opportunity to address any necessary evaluations and assessment information in preparation for determination of eligibility for Part B, special education and related services, on or before the child’s third birthday.

Transition Services Plan
The IEP must include secondary transition services that are in effect not later than the beginning of the student’s ninth grade year or upon turning 16 years of age, whichever comes first, or younger, if determined by the IEP team, and updated annually.  The IEP must include a statement about transitions including goals for post-secondary activities and the services needed to achieve these goals. There are 2 transition services pages which are located in OSDE Form 7: Individualized Education Plan (IEP).

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)
An acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment. Applies to open or closed head injuries.

Turner’s Syndrome
This rare genetic disorder affects females and is characterized by the absence of an X chromosome. Characteristics include small stature, limited development of sexual characteristics, low hairline and abnormal eye and bone development.

Visual Impairment
Impairment in vision that even with correction adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

Vision Specialists
Provide consultation and support to staff and direct instructional support to students with visual impairments. They provide functional vision assessments and curriculum modifications including Braille, large type and aural media.

Workability Program
These programs focus on preparing high school students with disabilities for successful transition to employment, continuing education and quality adult life with an emphasis on work based learning opportunities.  Refer to OSDE Form 7: Transition Services.

Written Notice or Prior Written Notice
Under 34 CFR §300.503(a), the school district must give you a written notice (information received in writing), whenever the school district: (1) Proposes to begin or change the identification, evaluation, or educational placement of your child or the provision of a free appropriate public education (FAPE) to your child; or (2) Refuses to begin or change the identification, evaluation, or educational placement of your child or the provision of FAPE to your child. The school district must provide the notice in understandable language (34 CFR §300.503(c)), OSDE Form 8: Written Notice or OSDE Form 8: Written Notice (Extended Version).  The extended version allows for more content to be included and is a 2 page document.  The purpose of providing written notice to the parents is so they understand what action the LEA is proposing or refusing and the basis used for determining the action.